Step 1Whisk the lemon juice, water, honey, mustard, garlic, salt and pepper to taste in a small bowl. Gradually whisk in the oil. Taste; adjust seasoning (a dressing should be well-seasoned). Set aside up to 2 hours at room temperature.
Step 1Heat the oven to 350 degrees. Spread the almonds on a baking sheet and toast until lightly browned, about 8 minutes. Set them aside.
Step 2Cut the onion and fennel in half through the roots. Place them flat on a cutting board. Using a very sharp knife or vegetable slicer, cut each across in paper-thin crescent slices. Place the slices in a bowl of ice water to cover. Soak up to 2 hours.
Step 3Cut the carrots in half lengthwise. Use a vegetable slicer, peeler or sharp knife to cut them into thin shavings. Place in a large bowl.
Step 4Quarter the apple through the core; remove the core. Place the apple on a cutting board; cut into paper-thin slices. Add to the bowl. Toss with the lemon juice. (This can rest up to 1 hour, refrigerated.)
Step 5To serve, strain the fennel and onion and drain well. Add to the bowl with the apple and carrots. Add just enough reserved dressing to coat the vegetables (use the excess for other salads and vegetables). Add the chopped parsley and chives. Toss until mixed. Taste, adjust seasoning. Transfer to a shallow bowl; sprinkle the top with the almonds. Serve immediately.