Step 1Combine the olive oil and anchovies in a skillet and warm over medium-low heat. Cook, stirring, until the anchovies begin to melt into the oil, about 1 minute. Add the garlic and red pepper flakes and keep cooking until the garlic softens, another 3 minutes.
Step 2Add the cauliflower florets and one-half cup of water. Cover tightly and cook on medium-low until the florets become slightly tender -- soft enough to be pierced with a knife, but not so soft that they can be crushed, about 7 minutes.
Step 3Remove the lid and raise the heat to high. Cook, stirring, until the water evaporates, leaving behind a thin layer of syrup in the bottom of the pan, about 5 minutes. Add the capers and parsley and cook briefly. Season to taste with salt and serve warm.