Step 1Heat the oven to 400 degrees. Clean and trim the artichokes: With a sharp knife, peel the outer stem of the artichoke and trim the stem, then peel the tough, thick outer leaves until you reach the tender leaves toward the center. Using kitchen shears, trim the tips of the leaves. Quarter the artichokes lengthwise and, with a spoon, scoop out the fuzzy center and tough, pointed petals. Place the trimmed artichokes in a large bowl of cold water along with the lemon juice; keep submerged until needed.
Step 2In a large pot, cook the onions and garlic in olive oil over medium heat until they soften and are fragrant, about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the tomatoes and cook, stirring frequently, until they begin to break down, about 5 minutes. Season with one-half teaspoon salt, or to taste. Add the green beans and cook an additional 5 minutes, stirring frequently. Stir in the water and bring to a simmer.
Step 3Spread the green bean mixture evenly across the bottom of a large roasting pan. Add the artichokes, bell pepper, eggplants, zucchini, potatoes, carrots, lima beans and parsley. Season with three-fourths teaspoon salt and one-fourth teaspoon pepper.
Step 4Bring the mixture to a simmer on top of the stove and cook, without stirring, for 5 minutes. Transfer the pan to the oven and bake until the vegetables are tender and covered with glaze, with no remaining sauce in the pan, 1 to 1 1/2 hours, gently stirring every half-hour. If there is still sauce in the pan when the vegetables are done, place the pan on the stove over medium-high heat to finish the cooking.